Source code for rich.console

import inspect
import os
import platform
import shutil
import sys
import threading
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod
from collections import abc
from dataclasses import dataclass, field, is_dataclass
from datetime import datetime
from functools import wraps
from getpass import getpass
from itertools import islice
from time import monotonic
from typing import (
    IO,
    TYPE_CHECKING,
    Any,
    Callable,
    Dict,
    Iterable,
    List,
    Mapping,
    NamedTuple,
    Optional,
    TextIO,
    Union,
    cast,
)

from typing_extensions import Literal, Protocol, runtime_checkable

from . import errors, themes
from ._emoji_replace import _emoji_replace
from ._log_render import FormatTimeCallable, LogRender
from .align import Align, AlignMethod
from .color import ColorSystem
from .control import Control
from .highlighter import NullHighlighter, ReprHighlighter
from .markup import render as render_markup
from .measure import Measurement, measure_renderables
from .pager import Pager, SystemPager
from .pretty import is_expandable, Pretty
from .scope import render_scope
from .screen import Screen
from .segment import Segment
from .style import Style, StyleType
from .styled import Styled
from .terminal_theme import DEFAULT_TERMINAL_THEME, TerminalTheme
from .text import Text, TextType
from .theme import Theme, ThemeStack

if TYPE_CHECKING:
    from ._windows import WindowsConsoleFeatures
    from .live import Live
    from .status import Status

WINDOWS = platform.system() == "Windows"

HighlighterType = Callable[[Union[str, "Text"]], "Text"]
JustifyMethod = Literal["default", "left", "center", "right", "full"]
OverflowMethod = Literal["fold", "crop", "ellipsis", "ignore"]


class NoChange:
    pass


NO_CHANGE = NoChange()


CONSOLE_HTML_FORMAT = """\
<!DOCTYPE html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<style>
{stylesheet}
body {{
    color: {foreground};
    background-color: {background};
}}
</style>
</head>
<html>
<body>
    <code>
        <pre style="font-family:Menlo,'DejaVu Sans Mono',consolas,'Courier New',monospace">{code}</pre>
    </code>
</body>
</html>
"""

_TERM_COLORS = {"256color": ColorSystem.EIGHT_BIT, "16color": ColorSystem.STANDARD}


[docs]class ConsoleDimensions(NamedTuple): """Size of the terminal.""" width: int """The width of the console in 'cells'.""" height: int """The height of the console in lines."""
[docs]@dataclass class ConsoleOptions: """Options for __rich_console__ method.""" size: ConsoleDimensions """Size of console.""" legacy_windows: bool """legacy_windows: flag for legacy windows.""" min_width: int """Minimum width of renderable.""" max_width: int """Maximum width of renderable.""" is_terminal: bool """True if the target is a terminal, otherwise False.""" encoding: str """Encoding of terminal.""" justify: Optional[JustifyMethod] = None """Justify value override for renderable.""" overflow: Optional[OverflowMethod] = None """Overflow value override for renderable.""" no_wrap: Optional[bool] = False """Disable wrapping for text.""" highlight: Optional[bool] = None """Highlight override for render_str.""" height: Optional[int] = None """Height available, or None for no height limit.""" @property def ascii_only(self) -> bool: """Check if renderables should use ascii only.""" return not self.encoding.startswith("utf")
[docs] def copy(self) -> "ConsoleOptions": """Return a copy of the options. Returns: ConsoleOptions: a copy of self. """ options = ConsoleOptions.__new__(ConsoleOptions) options.__dict__ = self.__dict__.copy() return options
[docs] def update( self, width: Union[int, NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, min_width: Union[int, NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, max_width: Union[int, NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, justify: Union[Optional[JustifyMethod], NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, overflow: Union[Optional[OverflowMethod], NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, no_wrap: Union[Optional[bool], NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, highlight: Union[Optional[bool], NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, height: Union[Optional[int], NoChange] = NO_CHANGE, ) -> "ConsoleOptions": """Update values, return a copy.""" options = self.copy() if not isinstance(width, NoChange): options.min_width = options.max_width = max(0, width) if not isinstance(min_width, NoChange): options.min_width = min_width if not isinstance(max_width, NoChange): options.max_width = max_width if not isinstance(justify, NoChange): options.justify = justify if not isinstance(overflow, NoChange): options.overflow = overflow if not isinstance(no_wrap, NoChange): options.no_wrap = no_wrap if not isinstance(highlight, NoChange): options.highlight = highlight if not isinstance(height, NoChange): options.height = None if height is None else max(0, height) return options
[docs] def update_width(self, width: int) -> "ConsoleOptions": """Update just the width, return a copy. Args: width (int): New width (sets both min_width and max_width) Returns: ~ConsoleOptions: New console options instance """ options = self.copy() options.min_width = options.max_width = max(0, width) return options
[docs]@runtime_checkable class RichCast(Protocol): """An object that may be 'cast' to a console renderable.""" def __rich__(self) -> Union["ConsoleRenderable", str]: # pragma: no cover ...
[docs]@runtime_checkable class ConsoleRenderable(Protocol): """An object that supports the console protocol.""" def __rich_console__( self, console: "Console", options: "ConsoleOptions" ) -> "RenderResult": # pragma: no cover ...
RenderableType = Union[ConsoleRenderable, RichCast, str] """A type that may be rendered by Console.""" RenderResult = Iterable[Union[RenderableType, Segment]] """The result of calling a __rich_console__ method.""" _null_highlighter = NullHighlighter()
[docs]class CaptureError(Exception): """An error in the Capture context manager."""
[docs]class NewLine: """A renderable to generate new line(s)""" def __init__(self, count: int = 1) -> None: self.count = count def __rich_console__( self, console: "Console", options: "ConsoleOptions" ) -> Iterable[Segment]: yield Segment("\n" * self.count)
[docs]class Capture: """Context manager to capture the result of printing to the console. See :meth:`~rich.console.Console.capture` for how to use. Args: console (Console): A console instance to capture output. """ def __init__(self, console: "Console") -> None: self._console = console self._result: Optional[str] = None def __enter__(self) -> "Capture": self._console.begin_capture() return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb) -> None: self._result = self._console.end_capture()
[docs] def get(self) -> str: """Get the result of the capture.""" if self._result is None: raise CaptureError( "Capture result is not available until context manager exits." ) return self._result
[docs]class ThemeContext: """A context manager to use a temporary theme. See :meth:`~rich.console.Console.use_theme` for usage.""" def __init__(self, console: "Console", theme: Theme, inherit: bool = True) -> None: self.console = console self.theme = theme self.inherit = inherit def __enter__(self) -> "ThemeContext": self.console.push_theme(self.theme) return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb) -> None: self.console.pop_theme()
[docs]class PagerContext: """A context manager that 'pages' content. See :meth:`~rich.console.Console.pager` for usage.""" def __init__( self, console: "Console", pager: Pager = None, styles: bool = False, links: bool = False, ) -> None: self._console = console self.pager = SystemPager() if pager is None else pager self.styles = styles self.links = links def __enter__(self) -> "PagerContext": self._console._enter_buffer() return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb) -> None: if exc_type is None: with self._console._lock: buffer: List[Segment] = self._console._buffer[:] del self._console._buffer[:] segments: Iterable[Segment] = buffer if not self.styles: segments = Segment.strip_styles(segments) elif not self.links: segments = Segment.strip_links(segments) content = self._console._render_buffer(segments) self.pager.show(content) self._console._exit_buffer()
[docs]class ScreenContext: """A context manager that enables an alternative screen. See :meth:`~rich.console.Console.screen` for usage.""" def __init__( self, console: "Console", hide_cursor: bool, style: StyleType = "" ) -> None: self.console = console self.hide_cursor = hide_cursor self.screen = Screen(style=style) self._changed = False
[docs] def update(self, *renderables: RenderableType, style: StyleType = None) -> None: """Update the screen. Args: renderable (RenderableType, optional): Optional renderable to replace current renderable, or None for no change. Defaults to None. style: (Style, optional): Replacement style, or None for no change. Defaults to None. """ if renderables: self.screen.renderable = ( RenderGroup(*renderables) if len(renderables) > 1 else renderables[0] ) if style is not None: self.screen.style = style self.console.print(self.screen, end="")
def __enter__(self) -> "ScreenContext": self._changed = self.console.set_alt_screen(True) if self._changed and self.hide_cursor: self.console.show_cursor(False) return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb) -> None: if self._changed: self.console.set_alt_screen(False) if self.hide_cursor: self.console.show_cursor(True)
[docs]class RenderGroup: """Takes a group of renderables and returns a renderable object that renders the group. Args: renderables (Iterable[RenderableType]): An iterable of renderable objects. fit (bool, optional): Fit dimension of group to contents, or fill available space. Defaults to True. """ def __init__(self, *renderables: "RenderableType", fit: bool = True) -> None: self._renderables = renderables self.fit = fit self._render: Optional[List[RenderableType]] = None @property def renderables(self) -> List["RenderableType"]: if self._render is None: self._render = list(self._renderables) return self._render def __rich_measure__(self, console: "Console", max_width: int) -> "Measurement": if self.fit: return measure_renderables(console, self.renderables, max_width) else: return Measurement(max_width, max_width) def __rich_console__( self, console: "Console", options: "ConsoleOptions" ) -> RenderResult: yield from self.renderables
[docs]def render_group(fit: bool = True) -> Callable: """A decorator that turns an iterable of renderables in to a group. Args: fit (bool, optional): Fit dimension of group to contents, or fill available space. Defaults to True. """ def decorator(method): """Convert a method that returns an iterable of renderables in to a RenderGroup.""" @wraps(method) def _replace(*args, **kwargs): renderables = method(*args, **kwargs) return RenderGroup(*renderables, fit=fit) return _replace return decorator
def _is_jupyter() -> bool: # pragma: no cover """Check if we're running in a Jupyter notebook.""" try: get_ipython # type: ignore except NameError: return False ipython = get_ipython() # type: ignore shell = ipython.__class__.__name__ # type: ignore if "google.colab" in str(ipython.__class__) or shell == "ZMQInteractiveShell": return True # Jupyter notebook or qtconsole elif shell == "TerminalInteractiveShell": return False # Terminal running IPython else: return False # Other type (?) COLOR_SYSTEMS = { "standard": ColorSystem.STANDARD, "256": ColorSystem.EIGHT_BIT, "truecolor": ColorSystem.TRUECOLOR, "windows": ColorSystem.WINDOWS, } _COLOR_SYSTEMS_NAMES = {system: name for name, system in COLOR_SYSTEMS.items()}
[docs]@dataclass class ConsoleThreadLocals(threading.local): """Thread local values for Console context.""" theme_stack: ThemeStack buffer: List[Segment] = field(default_factory=list) buffer_index: int = 0
[docs]class RenderHook(ABC): """Provides hooks in to the render process."""
[docs] @abstractmethod def process_renderables( self, renderables: List[ConsoleRenderable] ) -> List[ConsoleRenderable]: """Called with a list of objects to render. This method can return a new list of renderables, or modify and return the same list. Args: renderables (List[ConsoleRenderable]): A number of renderable objects. Returns: List[ConsoleRenderable]: A replacement list of renderables. """
_windows_console_features: Optional["WindowsConsoleFeatures"] = None def get_windows_console_features() -> "WindowsConsoleFeatures": # pragma: no cover global _windows_console_features if _windows_console_features is not None: return _windows_console_features from ._windows import get_windows_console_features _windows_console_features = get_windows_console_features() return _windows_console_features
[docs]def detect_legacy_windows() -> bool: """Detect legacy Windows.""" return WINDOWS and not get_windows_console_features().vt
if detect_legacy_windows(): # pragma: no cover from colorama import init init()
[docs]class Console: """A high level console interface. Args: color_system (str, optional): The color system supported by your terminal, either ``"standard"``, ``"256"`` or ``"truecolor"``. Leave as ``"auto"`` to autodetect. force_terminal (Optional[bool], optional): Enable/disable terminal control codes, or None to auto-detect terminal. Defaults to None. force_jupyter (Optional[bool], optional): Enable/disable Jupyter rendering, or None to auto-detect Jupyter. Defaults to None. force_interactive (Optional[bool], optional): Enable/disable interactive mode, or None to auto detect. Defaults to None. soft_wrap (Optional[bool], optional): Set soft wrap default on print method. Defaults to False. theme (Theme, optional): An optional style theme object, or ``None`` for default theme. stderr (bool, optional): Use stderr rather than stdout if ``file`` is not specified. Defaults to False. file (IO, optional): A file object where the console should write to. Defaults to stdout. quiet (bool, Optional): Boolean to suppress all output. Defaults to False. width (int, optional): The width of the terminal. Leave as default to auto-detect width. height (int, optional): The height of the terminal. Leave as default to auto-detect height. style (StyleType, optional): Style to apply to all output, or None for no style. Defaults to None. no_color (Optional[bool], optional): Enabled no color mode, or None to auto detect. Defaults to None. tab_size (int, optional): Number of spaces used to replace a tab character. Defaults to 8. record (bool, optional): Boolean to enable recording of terminal output, required to call :meth:`export_html` and :meth:`export_text`. Defaults to False. markup (bool, optional): Boolean to enable :ref:`console_markup`. Defaults to True. emoji (bool, optional): Enable emoji code. Defaults to True. highlight (bool, optional): Enable automatic highlighting. Defaults to True. log_time (bool, optional): Boolean to enable logging of time by :meth:`log` methods. Defaults to True. log_path (bool, optional): Boolean to enable the logging of the caller by :meth:`log`. Defaults to True. log_time_format (Union[str, TimeFormatterCallable], optional): If ``log_time`` is enabled, either string for strftime or callable that formats the time. Defaults to "[%X] ". highlighter (HighlighterType, optional): Default highlighter. legacy_windows (bool, optional): Enable legacy Windows mode, or ``None`` to auto detect. Defaults to ``None``. safe_box (bool, optional): Restrict box options that don't render on legacy Windows. get_datetime (Callable[[], datetime], optional): Callable that gets the current time as a datetime.datetime object (used by Console.log), or None for datetime.now. get_time (Callable[[], time], optional): Callable that gets the current time in seconds, default uses time.monotonic. """ _environ: Mapping[str, str] = os.environ def __init__( self, *, color_system: Optional[ Literal["auto", "standard", "256", "truecolor", "windows"] ] = "auto", force_terminal: bool = None, force_jupyter: bool = None, force_interactive: bool = None, soft_wrap: bool = False, theme: Theme = None, stderr: bool = False, file: IO[str] = None, quiet: bool = False, width: int = None, height: int = None, style: StyleType = None, no_color: bool = None, tab_size: int = 8, record: bool = False, markup: bool = True, emoji: bool = True, highlight: bool = True, log_time: bool = True, log_path: bool = True, log_time_format: Union[str, FormatTimeCallable] = "[%X]", highlighter: Optional["HighlighterType"] = ReprHighlighter(), legacy_windows: bool = None, safe_box: bool = True, get_datetime: Callable[[], datetime] = None, get_time: Callable[[], float] = None, _environ: Mapping[str, str] = None, ): # Copy of os.environ allows us to replace it for testing if _environ is not None: self._environ = _environ self.is_jupyter = _is_jupyter() if force_jupyter is None else force_jupyter if self.is_jupyter: width = width or 93 height = height or 100 if width is None: columns = self._environ.get("COLUMNS") if columns is not None and columns.isdigit(): width = int(columns) if height is None: lines = self._environ.get("LINES") if lines is not None and lines.isdigit(): height = int(lines) self.soft_wrap = soft_wrap self._width = width self._height = height self.tab_size = tab_size self.record = record self._markup = markup self._emoji = emoji self._highlight = highlight self.legacy_windows: bool = ( (detect_legacy_windows() and not self.is_jupyter) if legacy_windows is None else legacy_windows ) self._color_system: Optional[ColorSystem] self._force_terminal = force_terminal self._file = file self.quiet = quiet self.stderr = stderr if color_system is None: self._color_system = None elif color_system == "auto": self._color_system = self._detect_color_system() else: self._color_system = COLOR_SYSTEMS[color_system] self._lock = threading.RLock() self._log_render = LogRender( show_time=log_time, show_path=log_path, time_format=log_time_format, ) self.highlighter: HighlighterType = highlighter or _null_highlighter self.safe_box = safe_box self.get_datetime = get_datetime or datetime.now self.get_time = get_time or monotonic self.style = style self.no_color = ( no_color if no_color is not None else "NO_COLOR" in self._environ ) self.is_interactive = ( (self.is_terminal and not self.is_dumb_terminal) if force_interactive is None else force_interactive ) self._record_buffer_lock = threading.RLock() self._thread_locals = ConsoleThreadLocals( theme_stack=ThemeStack(themes.DEFAULT if theme is None else theme) ) self._record_buffer: List[Segment] = [] self._render_hooks: List[RenderHook] = [] self._live: Optional["Live"] = None def __repr__(self) -> str: return f"<console width={self.width} {str(self._color_system)}>" @property def file(self) -> IO[str]: """Get the file object to write to.""" file = self._file or (sys.stderr if self.stderr else sys.stdout) file = getattr(file, "rich_proxied_file", file) return file @file.setter def file(self, new_file: IO[str]) -> None: """Set a new file object.""" self._file = new_file @property def _buffer(self) -> List[Segment]: """Get a thread local buffer.""" return self._thread_locals.buffer @property def _buffer_index(self) -> int: """Get a thread local buffer.""" return self._thread_locals.buffer_index @_buffer_index.setter def _buffer_index(self, value: int) -> None: self._thread_locals.buffer_index = value @property def _theme_stack(self) -> ThemeStack: """Get the thread local theme stack.""" return self._thread_locals.theme_stack def _detect_color_system(self) -> Optional[ColorSystem]: """Detect color system from env vars.""" if self.is_jupyter: return ColorSystem.TRUECOLOR if not self.is_terminal or self.is_dumb_terminal: return None if WINDOWS: # pragma: no cover if self.legacy_windows: # pragma: no cover return ColorSystem.WINDOWS windows_console_features = get_windows_console_features() return ( ColorSystem.TRUECOLOR if windows_console_features.truecolor else ColorSystem.EIGHT_BIT ) else: color_term = self._environ.get("COLORTERM", "").strip().lower() if color_term in ("truecolor", "24bit"): return ColorSystem.TRUECOLOR term = self._environ.get("TERM", "").strip().lower() _term_name, _hyphen, colors = term.partition("-") color_system = _TERM_COLORS.get(colors, ColorSystem.STANDARD) return color_system def _enter_buffer(self) -> None: """Enter in to a buffer context, and buffer all output.""" self._buffer_index += 1 def _exit_buffer(self) -> None: """Leave buffer context, and render content if required.""" self._buffer_index -= 1 self._check_buffer()
[docs] def set_live(self, live: "Live") -> None: """Set Live instance. Used by Live context manager. Args: live (Live): Live instance using this Console. Raises: errors.LiveError: If this Console has a Live context currently active. """ with self._lock: if self._live is not None: raise errors.LiveError("Only one live display may be active at once") self._live = live
[docs] def clear_live(self) -> None: """Clear the Live instance.""" with self._lock: self._live = None
[docs] def push_render_hook(self, hook: RenderHook) -> None: """Add a new render hook to the stack. Args: hook (RenderHook): Render hook instance. """ self._render_hooks.append(hook)
[docs] def pop_render_hook(self) -> None: """Pop the last renderhook from the stack.""" self._render_hooks.pop()
def __enter__(self) -> "Console": """Own context manager to enter buffer context.""" self._enter_buffer() return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback) -> None: """Exit buffer context.""" self._exit_buffer()
[docs] def begin_capture(self) -> None: """Begin capturing console output. Call :meth:`end_capture` to exit capture mode and return output.""" self._enter_buffer()
[docs] def end_capture(self) -> str: """End capture mode and return captured string. Returns: str: Console output. """ render_result = self._render_buffer(self._buffer) del self._buffer[:] self._exit_buffer() return render_result
[docs] def push_theme(self, theme: Theme, *, inherit: bool = True) -> None: """Push a new theme on to the top of the stack, replacing the styles from the previous theme. Generally speaking, you should call :meth:`~rich.console.Console.use_theme` to get a context manager, rather than calling this method directly. Args: theme (Theme): A theme instance. inherit (bool, optional): Inherit existing styles. Defaults to True. """ self._theme_stack.push_theme(theme, inherit=inherit)
[docs] def pop_theme(self) -> None: """Remove theme from top of stack, restoring previous theme.""" self._theme_stack.pop_theme()
[docs] def use_theme(self, theme: Theme, *, inherit: bool = True) -> ThemeContext: """Use a different theme for the duration of the context manager. Args: theme (Theme): Theme instance to user. inherit (bool, optional): Inherit existing console styles. Defaults to True. Returns: ThemeContext: [description] """ return ThemeContext(self, theme, inherit)
@property def color_system(self) -> Optional[str]: """Get color system string. Returns: Optional[str]: "standard", "256" or "truecolor". """ if self._color_system is not None: return _COLOR_SYSTEMS_NAMES[self._color_system] else: return None @property def encoding(self) -> str: """Get the encoding of the console file, e.g. ``"utf-8"``. Returns: str: A standard encoding string. """ return (getattr(self.file, "encoding", "utf-8") or "utf-8").lower() @property def is_terminal(self) -> bool: """Check if the console is writing to a terminal. Returns: bool: True if the console writing to a device capable of understanding terminal codes, otherwise False. """ if self._force_terminal is not None: return self._force_terminal isatty = getattr(self.file, "isatty", None) return False if isatty is None else isatty() @property def is_dumb_terminal(self) -> bool: """Detect dumb terminal. Returns: bool: True if writing to a dumb terminal, otherwise False. """ _term = self._environ.get("TERM", "") is_dumb = _term.lower() in ("dumb", "unknown") return self.is_terminal and is_dumb @property def options(self) -> ConsoleOptions: """Get default console options.""" return ConsoleOptions( size=self.size, legacy_windows=self.legacy_windows, min_width=1, max_width=self.width, encoding=self.encoding, is_terminal=self.is_terminal, ) @property def size(self) -> ConsoleDimensions: """Get the size of the console. Returns: ConsoleDimensions: A named tuple containing the dimensions. """ if self._width is not None and self._height is not None: return ConsoleDimensions(self._width, self._height) if self.is_dumb_terminal: return ConsoleDimensions(80, 25) width: Optional[int] = None height: Optional[int] = None if WINDOWS: # pragma: no cover width, height = shutil.get_terminal_size() else: try: width, height = os.get_terminal_size(sys.stdin.fileno()) except (AttributeError, ValueError, OSError): try: width, height = os.get_terminal_size(sys.stdout.fileno()) except (AttributeError, ValueError, OSError): pass # get_terminal_size can report 0, 0 if run from pseudo-terminal width = width or 80 height = height or 25 return ConsoleDimensions( (width - self.legacy_windows) if self._width is None else self._width, height if self._height is None else self._height, ) @property def width(self) -> int: """Get the width of the console. Returns: int: The width (in characters) of the console. """ width, _ = self.size return width @property def height(self) -> int: """Get the height of the console. Returns: int: The height (in lines) of the console. """ _, height = self.size return height
[docs] def bell(self) -> None: """Play a 'bell' sound (if supported by the terminal).""" self.control("\x07")
[docs] def capture(self) -> Capture: """A context manager to *capture* the result of print() or log() in a string, rather than writing it to the console. Example: >>> from rich.console import Console >>> console = Console() >>> with console.capture() as capture: ... console.print("[bold magenta]Hello World[/]") >>> print(capture.get()) Returns: Capture: Context manager with disables writing to the terminal. """ capture = Capture(self) return capture
[docs] def pager( self, pager: Pager = None, styles: bool = False, links: bool = False ) -> PagerContext: """A context manager to display anything printed within a "pager". The pager application is defined by the system and will typically support at least pressing a key to scroll. Args: pager (Pager, optional): A pager object, or None to use :class:~rich.pager.SystemPager`. Defaults to None. styles (bool, optional): Show styles in pager. Defaults to False. links (bool, optional): Show links in pager. Defaults to False. Example: >>> from rich.console import Console >>> from rich.__main__ import make_test_card >>> console = Console() >>> with console.pager(): console.print(make_test_card()) Returns: PagerContext: A context manager. """ return PagerContext(self, pager=pager, styles=styles, links=links)
[docs] def line(self, count: int = 1) -> None: """Write new line(s). Args: count (int, optional): Number of new lines. Defaults to 1. """ assert count >= 0, "count must be >= 0" self.print(NewLine(count))
[docs] def clear(self, home: bool = True) -> None: """Clear the screen. Args: home (bool, optional): Also move the cursor to 'home' position. Defaults to True. """ self.control("\033[2J\033[H" if home else "\033[2J")
[docs] def status( self, status: RenderableType, *, spinner: str = "dots", spinner_style: str = "status.spinner", speed: float = 1.0, refresh_per_second: float = 12.5, ) -> "Status": """Display a status and spinner. Args: status (RenderableType): A status renderable (str or Text typically). console (Console, optional): Console instance to use, or None for global console. Defaults to None. spinner (str, optional): Name of spinner animation (see python -m rich.spinner). Defaults to "dots". spinner_style (StyleType, optional): Style of spinner. Defaults to "status.spinner". speed (float, optional): Speed factor for spinner animation. Defaults to 1.0. refresh_per_second (float, optional): Number of refreshes per second. Defaults to 12.5. Returns: Status: A Status object that may be used as a context manager. """ from .status import Status status_renderable = Status( status, console=self, spinner=spinner, spinner_style=spinner_style, speed=speed, refresh_per_second=refresh_per_second, ) return status_renderable
[docs] def show_cursor(self, show: bool = True) -> bool: """Show or hide the cursor. Args: show (bool, optional): Set visibility of the cursor. """ if self.is_terminal and not self.legacy_windows: self.control("\033[?25h" if show else "\033[?25l") return True return False
[docs] def set_alt_screen(self, enable: bool = True) -> bool: """Enables alternative screen mode. Note, if you enable this mode, you should ensure that is disabled before the application exits. See :meth:`~rich.Console.screen` for a context manager that handles this for you. Args: enable (bool, optional): Enable (True) or disable (False) alternate screen. Defaults to True. Returns: bool: True if the control codes were written. """ changed = False if self.is_terminal and not self.legacy_windows: self.control("\033[?1049h\033[H" if enable else "\033[?1049l") changed = True return changed
[docs] def screen( self, hide_cursor: bool = True, style: StyleType = None ) -> "ScreenContext": """Context manager to enable and disable 'alternative screen' mode. Args: hide_cursor (bool, optional): Also hide the cursor. Defaults to False. style (Style, optional): Optional style for screen. Defaults to None. Returns: ~ScreenContext: Context which enables alternate screen on enter, and disables it on exit. """ return ScreenContext(self, hide_cursor=hide_cursor, style=style or "")
[docs] def render( self, renderable: RenderableType, options: ConsoleOptions = None ) -> Iterable[Segment]: """Render an object in to an iterable of `Segment` instances. This method contains the logic for rendering objects with the console protocol. You are unlikely to need to use it directly, unless you are extending the library. Args: renderable (RenderableType): An object supporting the console protocol, or an object that may be converted to a string. options (ConsoleOptions, optional): An options object, or None to use self.options. Defaults to None. Returns: Iterable[Segment]: An iterable of segments that may be rendered. """ _options = options or self.options if _options.max_width < 1: # No space to render anything. This prevents potential recursion errors. return render_iterable: RenderResult if hasattr(renderable, "__rich__"): renderable = renderable.__rich__() # type: ignore if hasattr(renderable, "__rich_console__"): render_iterable = renderable.__rich_console__(self, _options) # type: ignore elif isinstance(renderable, str): text_renderable = self.render_str(renderable, highlight=_options.highlight) render_iterable = text_renderable.__rich_console__(self, _options) # type: ignore else: raise errors.NotRenderableError( f"Unable to render {renderable!r}; " "A str, Segment or object with __rich_console__ method is required" ) try: iter_render = iter(render_iterable) except TypeError: raise errors.NotRenderableError( f"object {render_iterable!r} is not renderable" ) for render_output in iter_render: if isinstance(render_output, Segment): yield render_output else: yield from self.render(render_output, _options)
[docs] def render_lines( self, renderable: RenderableType, options: Optional[ConsoleOptions] = None, *, style: Optional[Style] = None, pad: bool = True, new_lines: bool = False, ) -> List[List[Segment]]: """Render objects in to a list of lines. The output of render_lines is useful when further formatting of rendered console text is required, such as the Panel class which draws a border around any renderable object. Args: renderable (RenderableType): Any object renderable in the console. options (Optional[ConsoleOptions], optional): Console options, or None to use self.options. Default to ``None``. style (Style, optional): Optional style to apply to renderables. Defaults to ``None``. pad (bool, optional): Pad lines shorter than render width. Defaults to ``True``. new_lines (bool, optional): Include "\n" characters at end of lines. Returns: List[List[Segment]]: A list of lines, where a line is a list of Segment objects. """ render_options = options or self.options _rendered = self.render(renderable, render_options) if style: _rendered = Segment.apply_style(_rendered, style) lines = list( islice( Segment.split_and_crop_lines( _rendered, render_options.max_width, include_new_lines=new_lines, pad=pad, ), None, render_options.height, ) ) if render_options.height is not None: extra_lines = render_options.height - len(lines) if extra_lines > 0: pad_line = [ [Segment(" " * render_options.max_width, style), Segment("\n")] if new_lines else [Segment(" " * render_options.max_width, style)] ] lines.extend(pad_line * extra_lines) return lines
[docs] def render_str( self, text: str, *, style: Union[str, Style] = "", justify: JustifyMethod = None, overflow: OverflowMethod = None, emoji: bool = None, markup: bool = None, highlight: bool = None, highlighter: HighlighterType = None, ) -> "Text": """Convert a string to a Text instance. This is is called automatically if you print or log a string. Args: text (str): Text to render. style (Union[str, Style], optional): Style to apply to rendered text. justify (str, optional): Justify method: "default", "left", "center", "full", or "right". Defaults to ``None``. overflow (str, optional): Overflow method: "crop", "fold", or "ellipsis". Defaults to ``None``. emoji (Optional[bool], optional): Enable emoji, or ``None`` to use Console default. markup (Optional[bool], optional): Enable markup, or ``None`` to use Console default. highlight (Optional[bool], optional): Enable highlighting, or ``None`` to use Console default. highlighter (HighlighterType, optional): Optional highlighter to apply. Returns: ConsoleRenderable: Renderable object. """ emoji_enabled = emoji or (emoji is None and self._emoji) markup_enabled = markup or (markup is None and self._markup) highlight_enabled = highlight or (highlight is None and self._highlight) if markup_enabled: rich_text = render_markup(text, style=style, emoji=emoji_enabled) rich_text.justify = justify rich_text.overflow = overflow else: rich_text = Text( _emoji_replace(text) if emoji_enabled else text, justify=justify, overflow=overflow, style=style, ) _highlighter = (highlighter or self.highlighter) if highlight_enabled else None if _highlighter is not None: highlight_text = _highlighter(str(rich_text)) highlight_text.copy_styles(rich_text) return highlight_text return rich_text
[docs] def get_style( self, name: Union[str, Style], *, default: Union[Style, str] = None ) -> Style: """Get a Style instance by it's theme name or parse a definition. Args: name (str): The name of a style or a style definition. Returns: Style: A Style object. Raises: MissingStyle: If no style could be parsed from name. """ if isinstance(name, Style): return name try: style = self._theme_stack.get(name) if style is None: style = Style.parse(name) return style.copy() if style.link else style except errors.StyleSyntaxError as error: if default is not None: return self.get_style(default) raise errors.MissingStyle( f"Failed to get style {name!r}; {error}" ) from None
def _collect_renderables( self, objects: Iterable[Any], sep: str, end: str, *, justify: JustifyMethod = None, emoji: bool = None, markup: bool = None, highlight: bool = None, ) -> List[ConsoleRenderable]: """Combine a number of renderables and text into one renderable. Args: objects (Iterable[Any]): Anything that Rich can render. sep (str): String to write between print data. end (str): String to write at end of print data. justify (str, optional): One of "left", "right", "center", or "full". Defaults to ``None``. emoji (Optional[bool], optional): Enable emoji code, or ``None`` to use console default. markup (Optional[bool], optional): Enable markup, or ``None`` to use console default. highlight (Optional[bool], optional): Enable automatic highlighting, or ``None`` to use console default. Returns: List[ConsoleRenderable]: A list of things to render. """ renderables: List[ConsoleRenderable] = [] _append = renderables.append text: List[Text] = [] append_text = text.append append = _append if justify in ("left", "center", "right"): def align_append(renderable: RenderableType) -> None: _append(Align(renderable, cast(AlignMethod, justify))) append = align_append _highlighter: HighlighterType = _null_highlighter if highlight or (highlight is None and self._highlight): _highlighter = self.highlighter def check_text() -> None: if text: sep_text = Text(sep, justify=justify, end=end) append(sep_text.join(text)) del text[:] for renderable in objects: # I promise this is sane # This detects an object which claims to have all attributes, such as MagicMock.mock_calls if hasattr( renderable, "jwevpw_eors4dfo6mwo345ermk7kdnfnwerwer" ): # pragma: no cover renderable = repr(renderable) rich_cast = getattr(renderable, "__rich__", None) if rich_cast: renderable = rich_cast() if isinstance(renderable, str): append_text( self.render_str( renderable, emoji=emoji, markup=markup, highlighter=_highlighter ) ) elif isinstance(renderable, ConsoleRenderable): check_text() append(renderable) elif is_expandable(renderable): check_text() append(Pretty(renderable, highlighter=_highlighter)) else: append_text(_highlighter(str(renderable))) check_text() if self.style is not None: style = self.get_style(self.style) renderables = [Styled(renderable, style) for renderable in renderables] return renderables
[docs] def rule( self, title: TextType = "", *, characters: str = "─", style: Union[str, Style] = "rule.line", align: AlignMethod = "center", ) -> None: """Draw a line with optional centered title. Args: title (str, optional): Text to render over the rule. Defaults to "". characters (str, optional): Character(s) to form the line. Defaults to "─". style (str, optional): Style of line. Defaults to "rule.line". align (str, optional): How to align the title, one of "left", "center", or "right". Defaults to "center". """ from .rule import Rule rule = Rule(title=title, characters=characters, style=style, align=align) self.print(rule)
[docs] def control(self, control_codes: Union["Control", str]) -> None: """Insert non-printing control codes. Args: control_codes (str): Control codes, such as those that may move the cursor. """ if not self.is_dumb_terminal: self._buffer.append(Segment.control(str(control_codes))) self._check_buffer()
[docs] def out( self, *objects: Any, sep=" ", end="\n", style: Union[str, Style] = None, highlight: bool = None, ) -> None: """Output to the terminal. This is a low-level way of writing to the terminal which unlike :meth:`~rich.console.Console.print` won't pretty print, wrap text, or apply markup, but will optionally apply highlighting and a basic style. Args: sep (str, optional): String to write between print data. Defaults to " ". end (str, optional): String to write at end of print data. Defaults to "\\\\n". style (Union[str, Style], optional): A style to apply to output. Defaults to None. highlight (Optional[bool], optional): Enable automatic highlighting, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to ``None``. """ raw_output: str = sep.join(str(_object) for _object in objects) self.print( raw_output, style=style, highlight=highlight, emoji=False, markup=False, no_wrap=True, overflow="ignore", crop=False, end=end, )
[docs] def print( self, *objects: Any, sep=" ", end="\n", style: Union[str, Style] = None, justify: JustifyMethod = None, overflow: OverflowMethod = None, no_wrap: bool = None, emoji: bool = None, markup: bool = None, highlight: bool = None, width: int = None, height: int = None, crop: bool = True, soft_wrap: bool = None, ) -> None: """Print to the console. Args: objects (positional args): Objects to log to the terminal. sep (str, optional): String to write between print data. Defaults to " ". end (str, optional): String to write at end of print data. Defaults to "\\\\n". style (Union[str, Style], optional): A style to apply to output. Defaults to None. justify (str, optional): Justify method: "default", "left", "right", "center", or "full". Defaults to ``None``. overflow (str, optional): Overflow method: "ignore", "crop", "fold", or "ellipsis". Defaults to None. no_wrap (Optional[bool], optional): Disable word wrapping. Defaults to None. emoji (Optional[bool], optional): Enable emoji code, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to ``None``. markup (Optional[bool], optional): Enable markup, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to ``None``. highlight (Optional[bool], optional): Enable automatic highlighting, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to ``None``. width (Optional[int], optional): Width of output, or ``None`` to auto-detect. Defaults to ``None``. crop (Optional[bool], optional): Crop output to width of terminal. Defaults to True. soft_wrap (bool, optional): Enable soft wrap mode which disables word wrapping and cropping of text or None for Console default. Defaults to ``None``. """ if not objects: objects = (NewLine(),) if soft_wrap is None: soft_wrap = self.soft_wrap if soft_wrap: if no_wrap is None: no_wrap = True if overflow is None: overflow = "ignore" crop = False with self: renderables = self._collect_renderables( objects, sep, end, justify=justify, emoji=emoji, markup=markup, highlight=highlight, ) for hook in self._render_hooks: renderables = hook.process_renderables(renderables) render_options = self.options.update( justify=justify, overflow=overflow, width=min(width, self.width) if width else NO_CHANGE, height=height, no_wrap=no_wrap, ) new_segments: List[Segment] = [] extend = new_segments.extend render = self.render if style is None: for renderable in renderables: extend(render(renderable, render_options)) else: for renderable in renderables: extend( Segment.apply_style( render(renderable, render_options), self.get_style(style) ) ) if crop: buffer_extend = self._buffer.extend for line in Segment.split_and_crop_lines( new_segments, self.width, pad=False ): buffer_extend(line) else: self._buffer.extend(new_segments)
[docs] def print_exception( self, *, width: Optional[int] = 100, extra_lines: int = 3, theme: Optional[str] = None, word_wrap: bool = False, show_locals: bool = False, ) -> None: """Prints a rich render of the last exception and traceback. Args: width (Optional[int], optional): Number of characters used to render code. Defaults to 88. extra_lines (int, optional): Additional lines of code to render. Defaults to 3. theme (str, optional): Override pygments theme used in traceback word_wrap (bool, optional): Enable word wrapping of long lines. Defaults to False. show_locals (bool, optional): Enable display of local variables. Defaults to False. """ from .traceback import Traceback traceback = Traceback( width=width, extra_lines=extra_lines, theme=theme, word_wrap=word_wrap, show_locals=show_locals, ) self.print(traceback)
[docs] def log( self, *objects: Any, sep=" ", end="\n", style: Union[str, Style] = None, justify: JustifyMethod = None, emoji: bool = None, markup: bool = None, highlight: bool = None, log_locals: bool = False, _stack_offset=1, ) -> None: """Log rich content to the terminal. Args: objects (positional args): Objects to log to the terminal. sep (str, optional): String to write between print data. Defaults to " ". end (str, optional): String to write at end of print data. Defaults to "\\\\n". style (Union[str, Style], optional): A style to apply to output. Defaults to None. justify (str, optional): One of "left", "right", "center", or "full". Defaults to ``None``. overflow (str, optional): Overflow method: "crop", "fold", or "ellipsis". Defaults to None. emoji (Optional[bool], optional): Enable emoji code, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to None. markup (Optional[bool], optional): Enable markup, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to None. highlight (Optional[bool], optional): Enable automatic highlighting, or ``None`` to use console default. Defaults to None. log_locals (bool, optional): Boolean to enable logging of locals where ``log()`` was called. Defaults to False. _stack_offset (int, optional): Offset of caller from end of call stack. Defaults to 1. """ if not objects: objects = (NewLine(),) with self: renderables = self._collect_renderables( objects, sep, end, justify=justify, emoji=emoji, markup=markup, highlight=highlight, ) if style is not None: renderables = [Styled(renderable, style) for renderable in renderables] caller = inspect.stack()[_stack_offset] link_path = ( None if caller.filename.startswith("<") else os.path.abspath(caller.filename) ) path = caller.filename.rpartition(os.sep)[-1] line_no = caller.lineno if log_locals: locals_map = { key: value for key, value in caller.frame.f_locals.items() if not key.startswith("__") } renderables.append(render_scope(locals_map, title="[i]locals")) renderables = [ self._log_render( self, renderables, log_time=self.get_datetime(), path=path, line_no=line_no, link_path=link_path, ) ] for hook in self._render_hooks: renderables = hook.process_renderables(renderables) new_segments: List[Segment] = [] extend = new_segments.extend render = self.render render_options = self.options for renderable in renderables: extend(render(renderable, render_options)) buffer_extend = self._buffer.extend for line in Segment.split_and_crop_lines( new_segments, self.width, pad=False ): buffer_extend(line)
def _check_buffer(self) -> None: """Check if the buffer may be rendered.""" if self.quiet: del self._buffer[:] return with self._lock: if self._buffer_index == 0: if self.is_jupyter: # pragma: no cover from .jupyter import display display(self._buffer) del self._buffer[:] else: text = self._render_buffer(self._buffer[:]) del self._buffer[:] if text: try: if WINDOWS: # pragma: no cover # https://bugs.python.org/issue37871 write = self.file.write for line in text.splitlines(True): write(line) else: self.file.write(text) self.file.flush() except UnicodeEncodeError as error: error.reason = f"{error.reason}\n*** You may need to add PYTHONIOENCODING=utf-8 to your environment ***" raise def _render_buffer(self, buffer: Iterable[Segment]) -> str: """Render buffered output, and clear buffer.""" output: List[str] = [] append = output.append color_system = self._color_system legacy_windows = self.legacy_windows if self.record: with self._record_buffer_lock: self._record_buffer.extend(buffer) not_terminal = not self.is_terminal if self.no_color and color_system: buffer = Segment.remove_color(buffer) for text, style, is_control in buffer: if style: append( style.render( text, color_system=color_system, legacy_windows=legacy_windows, ) ) elif not (not_terminal and is_control): append(text) rendered = "".join(output) return rendered
[docs] def input( self, prompt: TextType = "", *, markup: bool = True, emoji: bool = True, password: bool = False, stream: TextIO = None, ) -> str: """Displays a prompt and waits for input from the user. The prompt may contain color / style. Args: prompt (Union[str, Text]): Text to render in the prompt. markup (bool, optional): Enable console markup (requires a str prompt). Defaults to True. emoji (bool, optional): Enable emoji (requires a str prompt). Defaults to True. password: (bool, optional): Hide typed text. Defaults to False. stream: (TextIO, optional): Optional file to read input from (rather than stdin). Defaults to None. Returns: str: Text read from stdin. """ prompt_str = "" if prompt: with self.capture() as capture: self.print(prompt, markup=markup, emoji=emoji, end="") prompt_str = capture.get() if self.legacy_windows: # Legacy windows doesn't like ANSI codes in getpass or input (colorama bug)? self.file.write(prompt_str) prompt_str = "" if password: result = getpass(prompt_str, stream=stream) else: if stream: self.file.write(prompt_str) result = stream.readline() else: result = input(prompt_str) return result
[docs] def export_text(self, *, clear: bool = True, styles: bool = False) -> str: """Generate text from console contents (requires record=True argument in constructor). Args: clear (bool, optional): Clear record buffer after exporting. Defaults to ``True``. styles (bool, optional): If ``True``, ansi escape codes will be included. ``False`` for plain text. Defaults to ``False``. Returns: str: String containing console contents. """ assert ( self.record ), "To export console contents set record=True in the constructor or instance" with self._record_buffer_lock: if styles: text = "".join( (style.render(text) if style else text) for text, style, _ in self._record_buffer ) else: text = "".join( segment.text for segment in self._record_buffer if not segment.is_control ) if clear: del self._record_buffer[:] return text
[docs] def save_text(self, path: str, *, clear: bool = True, styles: bool = False) -> None: """Generate text from console and save to a given location (requires record=True argument in constructor). Args: path (str): Path to write text files. clear (bool, optional): Clear record buffer after exporting. Defaults to ``True``. styles (bool, optional): If ``True``, ansi style codes will be included. ``False`` for plain text. Defaults to ``False``. """ text = self.export_text(clear=clear, styles=styles) with open(path, "wt", encoding="utf-8") as write_file: write_file.write(text)
[docs] def export_html( self, *, theme: TerminalTheme = None, clear: bool = True, code_format: str = None, inline_styles: bool = False, ) -> str: """Generate HTML from console contents (requires record=True argument in constructor). Args: theme (TerminalTheme, optional): TerminalTheme object containing console colors. clear (bool, optional): Clear record buffer after exporting. Defaults to ``True``. code_format (str, optional): Format string to render HTML, should contain {foreground} {background} and {code}. inline_styles (bool, optional): If ``True`` styles will be inlined in to spans, which makes files larger but easier to cut and paste markup. If ``False``, styles will be embedded in a style tag. Defaults to False. Returns: str: String containing console contents as HTML. """ assert ( self.record ), "To export console contents set record=True in the constructor or instance" fragments: List[str] = [] append = fragments.append _theme = theme or DEFAULT_TERMINAL_THEME stylesheet = "" def escape(text: str) -> str: """Escape html.""" return text.replace("&", "&amp;").replace("<", "&lt;").replace(">", "&gt;") render_code_format = CONSOLE_HTML_FORMAT if code_format is None else code_format with self._record_buffer_lock: if inline_styles: for text, style, _ in Segment.filter_control( Segment.simplify(self._record_buffer) ): text = escape(text) if style: rule = style.get_html_style(_theme) if style.link: text = f'<a href="{style.link}">{text}</a>' text = f'<span style="{rule}">{text}</span>' if rule else text append(text) else: styles: Dict[str, int] = {} for text, style, _ in Segment.filter_control( Segment.simplify(self._record_buffer) ): text = escape(text) if style: rule = style.get_html_style(_theme) style_number = styles.setdefault(rule, len(styles) + 1) if style.link: text = f'<a class="r{style_number}" href="{style.link}">{text}</a>' else: text = f'<span class="r{style_number}">{text}</span>' append(text) stylesheet_rules: List[str] = [] stylesheet_append = stylesheet_rules.append for style_rule, style_number in styles.items(): if style_rule: stylesheet_append(f".r{style_number} {{{style_rule}}}") stylesheet = "\n".join(stylesheet_rules) rendered_code = render_code_format.format( code="".join(fragments), stylesheet=stylesheet, foreground=_theme.foreground_color.hex, background=_theme.background_color.hex, ) if clear: del self._record_buffer[:] return rendered_code
[docs] def save_html( self, path: str, *, theme: TerminalTheme = None, clear: bool = True, code_format=CONSOLE_HTML_FORMAT, inline_styles: bool = False, ) -> None: """Generate HTML from console contents and write to a file (requires record=True argument in constructor). Args: path (str): Path to write html file. theme (TerminalTheme, optional): TerminalTheme object containing console colors. clear (bool, optional): Clear record buffer after exporting. Defaults to ``True``. code_format (str, optional): Format string to render HTML, should contain {foreground} {background} and {code}. inline_styles (bool, optional): If ``True`` styles will be inlined in to spans, which makes files larger but easier to cut and paste markup. If ``False``, styles will be embedded in a style tag. Defaults to False. """ html = self.export_html( theme=theme, clear=clear, code_format=code_format, inline_styles=inline_styles, ) with open(path, "wt", encoding="utf-8") as write_file: write_file.write(html)
if __name__ == "__main__": # pragma: no cover console = Console() console.log( "JSONRPC [i]request[/i]", 5, 1.3, True, False, None, { "jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "subtract", "params": {"minuend": 42, "subtrahend": 23}, "id": 3, }, ) console.log("Hello, World!", "{'a': 1}", repr(console)) console.print( { "name": None, "empty": [], "quiz": { "sport": { "answered": True, "q1": { "question": "Which one is correct team name in NBA?", "options": [ "New York Bulls", "Los Angeles Kings", "Golden State Warriors", "Huston Rocket", ], "answer": "Huston Rocket", }, }, "maths": { "answered": False, "q1": { "question": "5 + 7 = ?", "options": [10, 11, 12, 13], "answer": 12, }, "q2": { "question": "12 - 8 = ?", "options": [1, 2, 3, 4], "answer": 4, }, }, }, } ) console.log("foo")